## Thursday, November 15, 2012

### MTS / POSTMAN / GDS TO PA / PA RECRUITMENT MATERIAL

2. ANALOGY - PART-1 - REASONING ABILITY MATERIAL

This is an important category of questions and in almost all examinations, some questions are asked on this. There are two kinds of relationships that exist between words: (i) Similarity (ii) Non-similarity. When two words are similar then there must be some logically explicable way in which they are similar. If the same logical explanation may be given for another pair of words, their relationship will also be similar in the same way. Then we say that the two pairs are analogous i.e they exhibit analogy. For example, student: school and patient: hospitals are analogous pairs of words because they have the same relationship between them. A student goes to school, a patient goes to hospital.
Analogy means correspondence. In questions based on analogy, a particular relationship is given and another similar relationship has to identify from the alternatives provided. Analogy test are, therefore, meant to test a candidate over all knowledge, power of reasoning and ability to think concisely and accurately. Questions on analogy test the ability of a candidate to understand the relationship between two given objects and apply the same relationship to find that asked in the question. Below are given some common relationship, which will help you detect most analogies better.

Different Types Completing the Analogy pair

Type -1:      Direct/Simple Analogy
In this type of questions, the first two words have a definite.  We have to choose one word out of the given four alternatives which have same relationship with the third word as between the first two
1. Apparel is related to cloth in the same way as footwear is related to...?

a. Material     b. leather        c. cobbler       d. shoes         e. sandal

Sol b. first is made by other

2. Which of the following is related to Melody in the same way as Delicious is related to Taste?
a. Voice          b. Speak         c. Tongue       d. Highness

Sol: a, Delicious represents good taste. Similarly, Melody describe pleasant Voice

3. Wave is the related to air in the same way as Ripples is related to......?

a. Wind          b. Water         c. Strom          d. Smoke

Sol : b, Wave travel in air, ripples travel in water
4. Paddy is related to Field in the same way as Steel is related to......?
a. mine           b. factory        c. Iron             D. Ore

Sol   second is the place where the first is grown/produce

Type 2: Completing The Analogues pair

In this type of questions, two words are given. These are related to each other in some way. Another word is also given. The candidate is required t o find out the relationship between the first two words and choose the word from the given alternatives, which bears the same relationship to the third word, as the first two bear

1. Giant: Dwarf:: Genius : ?
a. Wicked      b. gentle         c. Idiot            d. tiny

Sol. Dwarf is the antonym Of Giant. Similarly, the antonym of Genius Is Idiot

2. Cattle: Herd:: Sheep : ?
a. Flock          b. swan           c. shoal          d. mob

Sol. herd is a group of cattle similarly; flock is a collection of sheep

3. Meningitis: Brain:: Cirrhosis : ?
a. Lungs         b. brain           c. liver           d. heart

Sol. C. First is a disease which effect the second

4. Horse: Jockey:: Car: ?
a. Mechanic   b. Chauffeur c. Steering      d. Brake

Sol.  first is driven by the second

5 Fruit: Banana:: mammal : ?
a. cow             b. snake          c. fish              d. sparrow

Sol. C. first denote the class to which the second belongs

6. Rat: cat:: Worm : ?
a. Fishing       b. earth           c. bird             d. silk

Sol. C. second feed the first

7 Walking: Running:: Smiling : ?
a. Feeling       b. Laughing   c. face                         d. Weeping

Sol B. second is the more intense form of the first

8. Eye: Wink: Heart?
a. Move          b. Throb         c. Pump         d. Quiver

Sol. C.  second denote the activity of the first

9 house: garbage: ore?
a. Rubbish     b. gangue       c. sand            d. dregs

Sol. B. the waste of the house is called garbage. Similarly, the impurities in the ore are called gangue

10. Fire: extinguish:: thirst : ?
a. quench       b. satiate        c mitigate       d. drink

sol. A. second is the name given to the act of doing away with the first

11. Wizard: witch:: monk : ?
a. madam       b. widow       c. nun             d. virgin

sol. C. second is feminine gender of the first

12. Connoisseur: art:: gourmet : ?
a. food            b. money        c drink            d. flesh

sol. first has good taste for the second

Type 3- Choosing the Analogus Pair
In this type of questions , a pair of word is given ,followed by four pair of words as alternatives. The candidate is required to choose the pair in which the words bear the same relationship to each other as the words of the given pair bear
1. Darkness: Lamp
a. Fatigue: Exercise   b. Thirst: Water     c. Medicine: Illness     d. Study: Classroom

Soln. B. Just as a lamp eliminates darkness, so also water eliminates thirst.

2. Fish: Shoal

a. Audience: Theatre    b. Shark: School    c.  Elephant: Flock     d.  Whale: Herd

Soln. A group of fish is called shoal. Similarly, a group of elephants is called flock.

3. Energy: Joule

a.      Axe :Grind    b. Ammeter :Current      c. Power : Ampere     d. Resistance : Ohm

Soln. Joule is the unit of measuring energy. Similarly ohm is the unit of measuring resistance. So the answer is (d).

TYPE 4 - Choosing a similar word

In this type of questions, a group of three/four words is given, followed by four other words as alternatives. The candidate is required to choose the alternative, which is similar to the given words.

1. Iron: Copper: zinc

a.      ceramic          b. carbon        c. silver          d. coke

Soln. answer is (c). All are metals.

2. Jute: cotton: wool

a.      terylene          b. silk             c. rayon          d. nylon

Soln. answer is (b). All are natural fibers.

3. Calf: Kid: Pup

a.      infant             b. young         c. larva           d. animal

Soln. answer is (c). All are young one of animals.

a.      Tomato    b. Spinach             c. Sesame       d. Groundnut

Soln. answer is (d). All grows underground.

5. Marble: Slate: Gneiss

a.      Quartzite       b. Limestone             c. Coal                                    d. Sandstone

Soln. answer is (a). All are metamorphic rocks.

Type-5- Alphabet Analogy

In this type of questions, two group of letters related to each other in some way,are given.the candidate is required to find out this relationship and then choose either a letter-group which is related in the same way to a third group provided in the questions or pair consisting of similarly related letter-groups.

Ex.1. BEGK is related to ADFJ in the same way as PSVY is related to …….?......
(a) LOQT(b) ROUX(c) OTUZ(d) ORUX

Sol. Clearly, each letter of the first group in a pair is moved one step backward to obtain the corresponding letter of the second group.
B E G K P S V Y
-1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1
A D F J O R U X

Ex.2. ABCD : NPRT : : FGHI : ?

Sol. Clearly, the first, second, third and fourth letters of the first group are moved
13,14,15 and 16 steps forward respectivel to obtain the corresponding letters of the second group.
A B C D F G H I
+13 +14 +15 +16 +13 +14 +15 +16
N P R T S U W Y
Ex.3. BLOCKED : YOLXPVW : : ? : OZFMXS
(a) LAUNCH(b) DEBATE(c) LABOUR(d) RESULT

Sol. Clearly, each letter in the first group occupies the same positions from the beginning of the alphabet as is occupied by the corresponding letter of the second group from the end of the alphabet.
Now, O,Z,F,M,X,S are respectively the 12th , 1st, 21st, 14th ,3rd, 8th letters from the end of the alphabet. Thus, the required letter group shall have in order the 12th, 1st, 21st, 14th ,3rd, 8th letters from the beginning of the alphabet, which is LAUNCH

TYPE -6- NUMBER BASED

This section deals with two types of questions :
I. Choosing a number related to a given number in the same manner as the two numbers of another given pair are related to each other.
II. Choosing a similarly related pair as the given number pair on the basis of the relation between the numbers in each pair.
III. Choosing a number similar to a group of numbers on the basis of certain common properties that they possess.
IV. Choosing a number set similar to a given number set

1. 14: 9:: 26: ?

a. 12                b.13                 c.15                d.31

Soln. answer is (c). The relationship is (2x-4): x

2. 8 : 28 :: 27 : ?

a.55                 b.63                c.64                 d.65

Soln. answer is (d). The relationship is x*3: ( x+1)*3 +1

3. 42 : 56 :: 72 : ?

a. 81                b.90                 c.92                d.100

Soln. answer is (b). 42=6x7, 56=7x8, 72=8x9 so missing fig is 90 = 9x10 .

4. 49: 81:: 100:?

a.64                 b.144               c.169               d. none of these

Soln. answer is (b).The relationship is x*2: (x+2)*2