Thursday, November 15, 2012


This material prepared and compiled by Akula. Praveen Kumar, SPM, Papannapet Sub Office-502 303, Medak Division, Andhra Pradesh            9849636361      ,            8019549939      
Disclaimer:- All Material/Questions/Information provided in this post are Compiled by A. Praveen Kumar for in good faith of Departmental Employees. The types of questions, number of questions and standard of questions may be vary in actual examination. This is my predictions only. Author of blog does not accepts any responsibility in relation to the accuracy, completeness, usefulness or otherwise, of the content


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              In another case, we may have four or five words where all but one of them have some similarity on the basis of which they could be classified in one class whereas one of the words is not similar, and hence it becomes the odd man out. Thus we see that there are two important types of questions that can be asked in competitive examinations. These are: (i) Analogy (ii) Classification. Both these problems can be asked with respect to both meaningful words and non-meaningful words. We first study analogy for both these types of words. This can be of two types (A) Analogy for Meaningful Words (B) Analogy for Non-meaningful Words. Let us discuss both of these types of Analogy one by one in the following pages.

(A) Analogy for Meaningful Words:
               In order to establish the analogy between a pair of words we need to determine the relationship that exists between any pair of words. For this purpose we are giving below an exhaustive study of various possible relationships between any pair of words.
Kind of Word Relationships:
               The relationships in word analogies fall into certain types or categories. For example, in WRITER:  BOOK, the relationship is that of the PRODUCER and the PRODUCT. Most word analogies fall into a comparatively small number of such categories. If the candidate is able to recognize the pattern to which a particular pair belongs, then analogy questions become very easy. Important relationships are given below.
(a)  Opposite Relationship:
               The two words of the question pair are opposites to one another in meaning and that relationship has to be discovered from the answer choice word pairs. For example,
1.      Alienation     :           Allegiance                 Never                        :           Always
2.      Poor                :           Rich                            Slim                           :           Stout
3.      Love               ;           Hate                            Husky                        :           Thin
4.      Humorous     :           Gloomy                      Meet                          :           Avoid
5.      Exempt          :           Obliged                     Suavity                        :           Bluntness
 (b)  Synonymous Relationship:
               The two words of the question pair are similar in meaning and that relationship has to be found among the words given in the answer choice word pairs. For example,
1.      Escape            :           Abscond                    Idea                :           Notion
2.      Husky            :           Beefy                          Meet               :           Contact
3.      Slim                ;           Thin                            Kind               :           Benevolent
4.      Stout               :           Portly                         Enormous      :           Huge
5.      Synthetic        :           Artificial                    Endless          :           Eternal
(c)  Cause and Effect Relationship:
               In this type of word relationship, the first word is the action and the second word is the effect or vice versa. For example,
1.      Shoot              :           Kill                             Insult              :           Humiliate
2.      Race                :           Fatigue                       Fast                 :           Hunger
By shooting (action), you will kill (effect); similarly, by racing (action) you get fatigued     (effect).
(d)  Worker and Article Relationship:
               These analogies include a person and the thing or article he creates (makes/produces):  For example,
1.      Author           :           Novel                         Sculptor         :           Bust
2.      Poet                :           Poem                          Writer             :           Book
3.      Carpenter      :           Chair                          Composer      :           Symphony    
An author (worker) is one who writes a novel (article); similarly, a poet (worker) is one who writes a poem (article).
(e) Worker and Tool Relationship:
               Here, the first term describes the person and the second term describes the tool used by him to carry out his function:  For example,
        1. SURGEON          :         FORCEPS                                   WRITER              :         PEN
          2. TAILOR               :         SEWING MACHINE                TYPIST                :         TYPEWRITER
          3. HUNTER             :         GUN
A surgeon (worker) uses forceps (tool) while doing surgery, similarly a writer (worker) uses pen (tool) during writing something.
(f) Tool and Object Relationship: 
This is a relationship between a tool and the object on which it works.  For example,
          1. PEN                     :         PAPER                                           KNIFE                           :         MEAT
          2.  SAW                  :         WOOD                                           HAMMER                      :         NAIL

(g)  Whole and Part, Part and Whole, and Part and Part Relationship:

In ‘whole and part relationship’, the second word of the pair represents something that is part of what the first word stands for.  In case of ‘part and whole relationship’ the first word of the question pair represents something that is part of what the second word stands for.  Another relationship that can exist is that of ‘part and part relationship’ in which both the words in the question pair are parts of a bigger thing.  These relationships can be illustrated as follows.  For example,
  1. CAR:  WHEEL (CAR an object as a whole; WHEEL a part of the object) Whole and Part relationship.
  2. COIL:  MOTOR (COIL a part of an object; MOTOR an object as a whole) Part and Whole relationship.
  3. HEAD: LEGS (HEAD a part of an object, LEGS also part of an object ie both are parts of BODY)  Part and Part relationship.
 While observing these relationships, the candidates are required to look for the function, location, position and similar other characteristics of the object which closely define a part from an object as a whole.
(h)  Degree of Difference (or Intensity) Relationship.
 The two words of the given pair are similar in meaning, but one word is stronger or greater in degree or weaker or lesser in degree than the other word in the pair.  For example,
(1)  HOT:  WARM                2) NIP:  CRUSH
HOT and WARM are both opposites to cold and therefore, similar in meaning.  But HOT is more intense (greater in degree) than WARM.  Similarly, NIP means “compress tightly”, whereas CRUSH means “press with force that destroys.”  The degree of difference must always flow in the same direction in the answer-pair as it does in the question pair.  Moreover, the degree of difference in the answer pair should be relatively the same as the degree of difference in the question pair.
(i)  Classification Relationship (class-species)
 The classification of words can be biological, chemical, physical or on any other basis, and the first word may be classified by the second word or vice versa.  Also, there can be defining relationships, i.e., one word of the pair defines the other.  For example,
          COW          :  MAMMAL (Biological Classification)
          ICE             :   WATER  (Physical Classification)
          Also note other examples:
         1. LOBSTER              :         INVERTERBRATE                                BUFFALO          :         MAMMAL
         2. LIZARD                 :        REPTILE                                                    OSTRICH            :         BIRD
         3. WHALE                   :         MAMMAL                                  
(j)  Functional Relationship:
 The words in the word pair may also have functional relationship, i.e., the second word describes the function of the first word.  For example,
1.       GENERAL :         COMMANDS                                              SENATOR          :         LEGISLATES

2.       SURGEON :         OPERATES                                                 JUDGE                   :         HEARING
(k)  Gender Relationship:
          1. BULL          :         COW                                                                    DUCK                  :         BRAKE
           2. MAN           :         WOMAN                                                             BOY                       :         GIRL
           3. DRONE      :         BEE                                                                        STAG                   :         DOE
           4. NEPHEW   :         NIECE
(l)  Sequential Relationship:
 The first word in the pair stands for something that is usually followed by what the second word in the pair stands for.  In other words, there is a sequential relationship between the pair, i.e., one follows the other.  For example,
          1. MORNING       :         EVENING                                 DAY           :         NIGHT
            2. NINE                 :         TEN
(m)  Finished Product and Raw Material Relationship:
 One of the words in the word pair is the end/finished product and the other word is related to the raw material used to produce the end/finished product.  For example,
1.       FLOUR               :         BREAD                                                       GRAPE      :         WINE
          2. FRESH MILK      :         MILK POWDER                                        LATEX       :         RUBBER
          3.  YARN                  :         FABRIC                                                        PULP           :         PAPER
(n)  Quantity and Unit Relationship:
 One of the words in the word pair is the unit of the second word of the word pair.
For example,   MASS                  :         KILOGRAM                                             LENGTH    :         METRE
                                  WORK       :         JULE
(o)  Characterization Relationship:
 In the word pair, the first word characterizes or is characterized by the second word in the pair.  The first word may be an object, a person or a place.  Characterization relationship is of two kinds.
(i)                Proper Characterization:  Proper characterization is one where the relation between the two items is natural i.e., ‘what it should be.’  For instance HOST : HOSPITABLE.  It is a natural relationship; that is, one expects a host to be hospitable.
(ii)             Opposite Characterization:  Sometimes you may find opposite characterization relationship between the words.  For instance, DIPLOMAT: TACTLESS.  No one would expect a diplomat to be tactless.  If any of the above characterization relationship is found in the question pair, you have to search for a similar relationship in the answer choices.  For example,
 (p) Utility Relationship:
          1.  CHAIR       :         SITTING                                                BED           :         SLEEPING
2.       CAR          :         DRIVING                                             PEN            :         WRITING
          3. GUN           :         KILLING
(q)  Comparative relationship:
 The words in the word pair have the relationship by which each other is generally compared.  For example,
          AS BLACK as COAL
          As RED as BLOOD
(r)  Place relationship:
 The word pair consists of an object represented by one term and its location by the second term.  For example,
         1. DELHI                 :         RED FORT             PUNJAB    :         LUDHIANA
“Delhi” and “Red Fort” have the relationship of place, i.e., Red Fort is in Delhi, similarly, as Ludhiana is in Punjab.
(s)  Association Relationship:
In the word pair the items are inter-related.  The first term in the word pair is associated (functionally, utility-wise, duty-related, etc.) with the second term in some respect.  For example,
         1. TIME         :         CLOCK                                                     PEN                       :         INK
          2. AIR PRESSURE:         BAROMETER                              CAT                    :         FELINE
          3. HORSE                :         EQUINE
(t)  Purpose Relationship:
 One term in the word pair describes an article/object and the second term its purpose or usage.  For example,
          SAND PAPER     :         ABRASION                               OIL                       :         LUBRICATION
(u)  Symbolic Relationship:
 In the word pair, first word is the symbol of the second word and vice versa.  For example,
                GREEN                :         CLEAR                                                        STARS         :         RANK               
                BLACK                :         SORROW                                                   MACE           :         MAJESTY
                DEGREE             :         KNOWLEDGE                                       RED-ROSS    :         HOSPITAL
                SWASTIKA        :         FORTUNE                                                RED                 :         DANGER
                VICTORIA CROSS       :         BRAVERY
An Analysis of the Above Relationship:
 Mace is a symbol of Majesty, it signifies authority.  A Degree also signifies a person’s level of knowledge.  Hence, a degree signifies that someone possesses knowledge.  Green, it may be light or flag, signifies road or traffic Clear sign.  Similarly Red-cross symbolizes a Hospital.  Crown signifies authority of Monarch and Swastika sign symbolizes fortune and luck.  Stars in the army signify Rank and Red signifies Danger.  Black colour symbolizes Sorrow and Victoria Cross is taken of Bravery.

(v)  Age Relationship:
 In the word pair, first word is the young one of the second word or vice-versa.  Second word may be one of the parents (male or female).  For example,
          LION          :         CUB                                                             HUMAN     :         CHILD
          CYGNET   :         SWAN                                                        HARE                  :         LEVEREST
          DUCK         :         DUCKLING                                            CATERPILLAR:  BUTTERFLY
The above discussed relationships are some of the most common word relationships that can be presented in analogy tests.  In addition to these, there are some more word relationships which have been given below and some of which include the ones already explained.


Ex. Afghanistan: Kabul
Kabul is the capital of Afghanistan.
Some more examples are given below: -

Australia           : Canberra                    Canada          : Ottawa           Japan               : Tokyo
Austria             : Vienna                       Spain               : Madrid           Italy                  : Rome
Bangladesh      : Dhaka                        Greece           : Athens           Egypt               : Cairo
Bhutan             : Thimpu                      China               : Beijing            France             : Paris
Iraq                  : Baghdad                    Iran                  : Teheran         India                 : Delhi
Denmark          : Copenhagen              Nepal               : Katmandu       Cuba                : Havana
Portugal           : Lisbon                        Kenya              : Nairobi           Norway              : Oslo
Sri Lanka          : Colombo                    Pakistan           : Islamabad       Thailand           : Bangkok
Indonesia         : Jakarta                       Russia              : Moscow         UK                   : London
USA     : Washington

2. States and Capital
Ex. Maharashtra           : Mumbai         
Mumbai is the capital of Maharasthra

Karnataka         :Bangalore                   Assam              : Dispur            Bihar                : Patna
Orissa              :Bhubaneswar              Rajasthan         : Jaipur             Sikkim              : Gangtok
Gujarat             : Ahmedabad                U.P                  : Luknow          Kerala  : Trivandrum
Himachal Pradesh        : Shimla            Meghalya         : Shilong          Nagaland          : Mizorzm
Tamilnadu        : Chennai                     Andhra Pradesh: Hyderabad    West Bengal    : Kolkata

3. Country and Currency
Ex. Rupee       : India                           Argentina         : Peso              Bangladesh      : Taka 
Burma              : Kyat                           China               : Yuan              Greece            : Drachma 
Iran                  : Rial                            Iraq                  : Dinar              Japan               : Yen 
Korea               : Won                           Kuwait              : Dinar              UK                   : Pound 
USA                 : Dollar                         Thailand           : Baht               UAE                 : Dirham 
Turkey             : Lira                            Spain               : Pesta              Russia              : Rouble 
Germany          : Mark                          Netherlands     : Guilder           Sweden           : Krona

4. Quantity and Unit 
Ex. Length       : Meter                         Mass                : Kilogram         Time                : Second 
Force               : Newton                      Energy             : Joule              Resistance       : Ohm 
Volume            : Litre                           Angle               : Radians          Power              : Watt 
Potential           : Volt                            Work                : Joule              Current           : Ampere 
Pressure          : Pascal                        Area                 : Hectare          Temperature    : Degrees 
Conductivity     : Mho                           Luminosity       : Candela         Magnetic Field:Oersted

6 Individual and Group

Ex. Sailor         : Crew                          Cattle               : Herd              Sheep              : Flock 
Flower             : Bouquet                     Bees                : Swarm            Riders              Cavalcade 
Man                 : Crowed                      Grapes             : Bunch            Singer              : Chorus 
Artist                : Troupe                       Soldier             : Army              Fish                 : Shoal 
Nomads           : Hoarde                       Players             : Team            Musician          : Band 
Pupils               : Class                          Pilgrims            : Caravan       Geese              : Gaggle 
Chicken           : Brood                         Termites          : Colony           Goods              : Stock 
Drawers: Chest

7 Animal and Young one 
Ex. Cow and Calf
Bear                 : Cub                            Hen                  : Chick             Cat                   : Kitten
Horse               : Colt/Filly/Foal             Lion/Tiger        : Cub                Man                 : Child
Duck                : Duckling                     Sheep              : Lamb              Insect               : Larva
Butterfly           : Caterpillar                  Stag                 : Fawn              Frog                 : Tadpole
Dog                  :Puppy                         Deer                :Fawn               Swan                : Cygnet
Cockroach       : Nymph

Male and Female
Ex. Horse        :Mare                           Dog                  :Bitch               Bull                  :Cow
Cock                : Hen                            Drone              :Bee                 Stag                 :Doe
Lion                 : Lioness                      Colt                  :Filly                 Bullock             :Heifer
Gander            : Goose                        Fox                  :Vixen              Drake               :Duck
Bachelor          : Spinster                     Nephew           :Niece              Son                  :Daughter
Lord                 : Lady                           Brother          :Sister               Wizared           :Witch
Monk               : Nun                            Master             :Mistress          Tutor                :
Earl                  : Countess

Animal and Movement

Bird                  : Fly                             Cock                : Strut               Eagle               : Swoop
Owl                  : Flit                             Bear                 : Lumber          Donkey              Trot
Elephant          :Amble                         Horse               :Gallop             Lamb                : Frisk
Loin                 :Prowl                          Mouse             :Scamper         Rabbit              : Leap

Animal/Thing and Sound

Donkey             : Bray                           Frog                 : Crock             Goat                 : Bleat
Horse               : Neigh                         Snake              : Hiss               Jackal               : Howl
Mice                 : Squawk                      Cat                   : Mew               Cattle               : Low
Camel              : Grunt                         Owl                  :Hoot                Sparrow           : Chirp
Crow                :Caw                            Duck                :Quack             Hen                  : Cackle
Cock                :Crow                           Elephant          :Trumpet          Monkey            : Gibber
Thunder           :Roar                            Leaves             :Rustle             Rain                 : Patter
Bells                 :Chime                         Drum                :Beat                Coin                 : Jingle

Individual/ Things and Class

Man                 :Mammal                      Buterfly             :Insect              Whale              : Mammal
Ostrich             :Bird                             Snake              :Reptile            Rat                   : Rodent
Frog                 :Amphibian                   Pen                  :Stationery       Curtain             : Drapery
Chair                :Funiture                      Cup                  :Crockery         Shirt                 : Garment

Individual and Dwelling Place

Ex. Dog: Kennel

Bee      :hive                             Bird      :Nest                Cow     : Byre/Pen        Eagle   :Eyrie
Hare     :Burrow                        Horse   : Stable             Lion     :Den                 Mouse :Hole
Owl      : Barn                           Pig       :Sty                  Spider  :Web                Convict: Prison
Eskimo:Igloo                            Gypsy  :Carvan            King     : Palace            Knight  :Mansion
Lunatic:Asylum                         Monk   : Monastery      Nun      :Convent          Peasant:Cottage
Soldier: Barracks

Animal/ thing And Keeping Place 
Ex. Car: Garage

Aeroplane        :Hanger            Bees    : Apiary            Birds    : Aviary             Animal  :Zoo
Cloths              :Wardobe         Fish     : Aquarium       Grains  :Granery          Guns    :Armoury
Curios              : Museum         Medicine:Dispensary   Patient:   Hospital           Wine    : Cellar

Workers and Tool
Ex. Blacksmith : Anvil

Carpenter        : Saw                Chef                :Knife               Woodcutter      : Axe   
Soldier             :Gun                Warrior             : Sword           Doctor              :Stethoscope
Farmer             :Plough            Author              :Pen                 Surgeon           : Scalpel
Gardener         : Harrow           Mason              :Plumbline        Sculptor           : Chinsel
Labourer          : Spade            Tailor               : Needle

Tool and Action
Ex. Needle and Sew

Knife                : Cut                 Gun                 : Shoot             Spoon              : Feed
Binocular          : View               Sword              : Slaughter       Shovel             : Scoop
Chisel              :Carve              Oar                  :Row                Axe                  : Grind
Auger               :Bore                Spade              :Dig                  Shield              : Guard
Mattock            :Dig                  Pen                  :Write               Spanner           : Grip
Tongs              :Hold                Microscope      :Magnify           Loudspeaker    : Amplify

Workers and Working Place 
Ex. Chef: Kitchen

Farmer             : Field              Teacher           :School            Clerk                : Office
Sailor               :Ship                Engineer          :Site                 Warrior             : Battlefield
Doctor              :Hospital           Servant            :House             Grocer             : Shop
Painter             :Gallery            Waiter              :Restaurant      Worker             : Factory
Umpire             :Pitch               Gambler:          Casino              Beautician        : Parlor
Artist                :Theatre           Actor                :Stage              Mechanic         : Garage
Lawyer             :Court              Scientist           :Laboratory      Astronomer      :Obsevatory

Workers and Product
Ex. Manson: Wall

Choreographer: Ballet              Dramatist          :Play                 Cobbler            : Shoe
Editor               : Newspaper    Producer          :Film                   Chef                : Food
Architect          :Design            Tailor               :Clothes             Poet                 : Poem
Farmer             :Crop               Auther              :Book               Goldsmith        : Ornament
Carpenter        :Furniture         Butcher            :Meat               Teacher           : Education

Product and raw Material
Ex. Prism: Glass

Butter               :Milk                 Cloth                :Fibre               Paper               : pulp
Wine                :Grapes            Fabric              :Yarn                Wall                  : Brick
Road                :Asphalt            Furniture          :Wood              Book                : Paper
Shoes              :Leather           Pullover           :Wool               Sack                 : Jute
Omelette          :Egg                 Meta                :Ore                 Jewellery         : Gold
Rubber            :Latex               Linen               :Flax                 Jaggery            : Sugarcane
Oil                    : Seed

Part and Whole Relationship 
Ex. Pen: Nib

Pencil               :Lead               Class                :Student           Clock               : needle
Circle               :Arc                  House              :Room              Car                   : Steering
Aeroplane        :Cockpit           Book                :Chapter           Fan                  : Blade
Cart                  : Wheel

Pair Relationship 
Ex. Shoes: Socks

Shirt                 :Trouser           Chair                :Table              Lock                 : key
Saree               :Blouse             Pencil               :Eraser             Door                : Window
Cup                  :Saucer            Horse               :Carriage          Question          : Answer

Ex. Ornithology: Birds

Anthropology:Man                   Entomology      :Insect              Botany             : Plant
Seismology      :Man                Cadilogy           Heart               Mycology         : Fungi
Pathology         :Disease           Physiology       :Body               Haematology    : Kidney
Palaeontology:Fossils              Ichthyology      :Fishes             Herpeology      :Ambhibian
Phycology        :Algae              Pedology         :Soil                 Nephrology      : Kidney
Taxonomy:Classification          Selenography:Moon                Eccrinology      : Secretion

Word and Intensity
Ex. Anger: Rage

Wish                :Desire             Touch              :Push               Kindle              : Burn
Sink                 :Drown             Qurrel              :War                 Error                : Blunder
Famous            :Renowned      Unhappy          :Sad                 Refuse             : Deny
Crime               :Sin                  Moisten            :Drench            Speak              : Shout

Word and Synonym
Ex. Abode: Dweling

Blend               :Mix                  Solicit               :Request          Ban                  : Prohibition
Flaw                 :Defect             Fierce              :Voiolent          Fallacy             : Illusion
Substitute        :Replace          Mend               :Repair             Alight               : Descend
Pesume           :Assume           Brim                 :Edge               House              : Home
Sedate             :Calm               Dissipate          :Squander        Dearth              : Scarsity
Abduct             :Kidnap            Vacant              :Empty             Prsage             : Predict

Word and Antonym 
Ex. Attack        : Defend
Advance           :Retreat            Sink                 Float               Crual                : Kind
Robust             :Weak              Best                 :Worst              Gentle              : Harsh
Deep                :Shallow           Fresh               :Stale               Ignore              : Notice
Cordial             :Hostile               Initial                :Final                Lethargy          : Alertness
Affirm               :Deny               Mourn              :Rejoice           Kindle              : Extinguish
Lend                :Borrow            Condense        :Expand           Create              : Destroy
Gradual            :Abrubt             Chaos              : Peace 

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