Monday, October 29, 2012


The present Telangana province in Andhra Pradesh earlier was part of Nizams diminions called Hyderabad state. It was ruled by the Nawabs of Asifjahi dynasty. The princely state was absorbed into Indian union after Police action in 1948. The last Nizam Mir Osman Ali Khan did not merge his state in to Indian union after India was granted independence and preferred to remain independent. He let loose a reign of terror on Hindu population in his dominion to Islamise the state and raiseda fundamentalist militia called Razakars under Kasim Razvi who was also the head of Majlis ittehad ul Mulsimeen ( MIM). Razakars committed untold atrocities on Hindu population of the state and it was ignored by the Nizam. Inspite of repeated warnings from Indian government there was no improvement and at last Indian army marched in Sept 1948 from different directions into Hyderbad state and Nizams military power collapsed like a pack of cards. Many razakars were killed. The criminals were arrested and Nizams government was abolished and the state was merged into Indian union. Kasim Razvi who deserved hanging was given a 10 year prison term after a trial. Hyderabad became one of the union states.Razakar force was disbanded apart from Hyderabad army.

Hyderabad princely state had two distinct regions called Marathwada and Telangana. Telangana areas were Telugu speaking areas comprising districts of Adilabad, Nizamabad, Karimnagar, Medak, Nalgonda, Khammammet ( Now called Khammam), Mahboob nagar, Warnagal and Atraf balda ( Around Hyderabad city). Marathwada region consisted of districts, Gulbarga, Raichur, Bidar, Aurangabad, Osmanabad, Beed, Parbhani and Nanded. In 1956 the states were reorganized and Telangana was merged with Andhra state and Andhra Pradesh was formed. The demand for a separate Telangana state has been going on from 1956 and it erupted with great force in 1969 and again recently. Many precious lives have been lost in the agitation in police firings and , suicides. The people of Telanagana are clamoring for self rule free from the alleged domination of Andhra leaders. The struggle is going on and probably the area will be never calm till Telangana is materialized. 

People of Telangana earlier suffered under Nizams rule. Asafjahi dynasty comprising of 7 Nizams ruled Hyderabad state. The first Nizam was Qamruddin Chin khilij khan Asaf Jah and he was a Deccan Subedar of Mughal emperor Mohammed Shah (Rangeela ) and literally was an independent ruler. The sixth Nizam was Mir Mahboob Ali Khan generally known as a benevolent ruler. However, under the rule of Nizam 7 Mir Osman ali Khan, Hindu population suffered greatly. Taxes were severe and exploitation of masses was very high. There were systematic methods to eradicate Hindu names in Telangana and many districts were renamed giving them Islamic identity. Indur was named Nizamabad while Palamoor was named as Mahboob nagar. Metuku was transformed into Medak. Elagandla which was the district capital was abandoned and was shifted to Karimnagar a close by place. Bhuvanagiri a hill fort which is about 40 km from Hyderabad was renamed as Bhongir. Manukota was renamed as Mahboobabad. All village names ending with Padu were changed to Pahad. Hyderabad state was also declared as Islamic state. Hindu shrines were too allegedly destroyed and new mosques were built. Women were exploited and dishonored. Thus situation was grave. 

Adilabad district is located at the northern end of the state bordering Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh. These are hill bound areas with deep and thick jungles. In the earlier times, the area were under the rule of Gond kings of Chanda ( Chadrapur) and Ballalpur. Tribal population like Gonds constitute a great strength. The district is backward in most of the aspects.Agriculture is poor. During Nizam’s times, situation was worst and the villagers suffered greatly. Taxes imposed by the Nizam were un bearable. The local Zamindars of Nizam suppressed the tribals ruthlessly and exploited them. Komaram Bheem was born in Asifabad region of Adilabad district in a Gond family and was brought up in tribal areas and had no contact with outside world and education. When he grew, he realized the hardships of his people and observed the atrocities on tribals by Nizams officials and police. He decided to resist the repression. He was much inspired by the sacrifices of Shaheed Bhagat Singh and Alluri Seetha rama Raju in Tribal areas of Andhra region. He decided to wage battle against the oppressive Nizam’s rule. He organized Gonds for the rebellion and waged gurellia war against Nizams police. He had no resources and used primitive weapons such as muzzle loaders, spears, lances , bows and arrows and swords. Local Talukdar Abdul Sattar could not control the situation and decided to attack Bheem with large police force. With ninety well armed police men he attacked the hiding place of Bheem on October 27, 1940 and the rebels under the leadership of Bheem retaliated with full force. There was a vigorous fight and in the operation Komaram Bheem became a martyr and sacrificed his life for liberation of the people from an oppressive regime. The Nizam too lost his power in 1948 after police action and people of the state were freed from the cruel Asifjahi rule. 

Komaram Bheem has become a deity to Gond people and has become an Icon for liberation movement in Telangana. His name literally disappeared into history and most of the people in the state were not aware of him and his sacrifice. His death anniversary was being celebrated in the Adilabad district at Jodeghat ( Krameri Mandal) near his native place by the Naxalite militants and it is alleged that the govt has down played the activity. With rising passions in Telangana region, Komaram Bheem’s memory has been rekindled. During NT Rama Rao’s regime, scores of statues of distinguished leaders and achievers in various fields were erected on Tank bund. However during the last years million march episode of Telangana agitation, statues of many Andhra stalwarts were destroyed, disfigured and thrown down into Hussein sagar lake . It was the result of rising passions and to assuage the feelings of locals. Movies on the life of the hero have also been produced in Telugu and released. A statue of martyr Komaram Bheem has been installed at Tank bund. Long live his memory.

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